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RE: CPH

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The Critical Period Hypothesis claims that______.

(A) we may not acquire a language beyond a biologically determined

period of time.
(B) by the age 12 or 13 we are "over the hill" in light of successful

second language learning.
xyz
(C) language acquisition is always natural and effortless before the

age of puberty.
(D) the optimal age for language acquisition falls within the period

when the brain retains plasticity.

xyz



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這一題我看到會選D耶...
Critical period hypothesis有兩個版本: determinism和 relativism
不論是強化或是弱化版,都說明學習第二外語的年紀和語言學習成功與否有正相關
雖然說人類學的研究和阿諾史瓦辛格效應證明成人學習語言也具備成功的可能性
然而他們必須靠後天的cognitive skill, schemata 來補足。
D選項是CPH最基本的假設,人類學的資料是後來學者論述這個假說缺陷時才提出的


C選項的always好像有點太武斷了,不禁讓我想到一些languague deficent children
的特例。IL有提到過即使是小孩也必須經常性的以各種形式練習所聽到的語言,
譬如說說夢話。再加上小孩子所犯的錯誤: overgeneralization, overextention等等
他們學習語言也不盡然 "effortless"。



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Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. This capacity involves the picking up of diverse capacities including syntax, phonetics, and an extensive vocabulary. This language might be vocal as with speech or manual as in sign. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language, rather than second language acquisition that deals with acquisition in both children and adults of additional languages.
The capacity to acquire and use language is a key aspect that distinguishes humans from other organisms. While many forms of animal communication exist, they have a limited range of nonsyntactically structured vocabulary tokens that lack cross cultural variation between groups.
A major concern in understanding language acquisition is how these capacities are picked up by infants from what appears to be very little input. A range of theories of has been created in order to explain this apparent problem including innatism in which a child is born prepared in some manner with these capacities, or whether these are learned.



C的答案,以母語(L1)習得來說上來說是對的吧



人類天生就具備有語言能力,



兒童只要在青春期前接觸人類語言環境,就可以自然,有效地學會他的第一個語言~這也就是Eric Lenneberg所提出的關鍵時期假設~



舉最有名的例子-Genie的案例來說,她從小就被隔離在人類語言環境之外,直到過了12歲被發現之後才開始學習語言,到了18歲時卻發現她僅學會了有限的語法能力。



至於提到失語症的孩童學習語言的狀況



失語症:是因為後天的因素(中樞神經系統受損,e.g.,腦傷,中風,癲癇腦橋切斷手術),導致語言功能障礙-領解,口語。





xyz軟體補給站

D的答案



關鍵時期中的語言習得理想年紀,我覺得重點不是放在腦的可塑性



是在於孩童有沒有暴露在人類語言環境之下,接收第一語言的輸入並開始進行語言學習~



有研究指出,過了關鍵時期-成人在學習第二語言時,是使用另一個腦部機制,來代替之前學習母語的機制。



什麼是"理想" ,"年齡"?



大人也可以是理想的第二語言學習者,但差別最大的就是在於有沒有得到native-like 口音。



大人具有較完熟的認知能力來處理需要分析的知識。之於小孩的學習來看 ---不也是一種理想的學習能力?

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作者: ozlksvoat
  (2010-06-24 11:22)
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